Unlike Zou, Levitt view is that a market segment of one country is seldom unique and has similar related segments everywhere because technology has homogenized the globe. Success in reducing barriers has increased the relative importance of non-tariff barrier, including those related to standards and technical regulations.
The advantages of standardization is that it helps cuts costs by lowering installation costs, reducing need to maintain large inventories, and lowering maintenance costs thus also allows a company to take advantage of economies of scale when purchasing supplies.
For example alcohol firms can advertise on football shirts Sponsoring events with a global appeal e. This in essence will reflect what people want in the market and what is available in the market before going into the international market thus going into it with adequate information.
Firms must look at the availability of media within the target country and select the most appropriate medium. Modification Despite the obvious advantages of a standardised communications strategy there exists a number of significant factors that impinge upon the effectiveness of such a strategy.
Total adaptation perspective emphasizes the persistent difference between the nations and the competitive regulatory necessity to customize marketing strategy to individual market.
Easyjet offers its website in various different languages With the intensification of competition for the attention of foreign audiences whose cultures are remote from those of domestic markets, commonsense dictates that a "contingency" or "adaptation" approach would be the most useful as a competitive weapon Burnley Trade and international policy standardisation vs adaptation essay writer support and reinforce domestic objectives and vice versa.
Also moving swiftly towards global standardization can result in the disruption of the established operations and the loss of key assets.
In putting standardization into effect there is equally the issue of government regulations that are different from one country to another which are taken into account.
It helps the firm anticipate how consumers in various markets are likely to respond to their actions. By definition, customer contact is not a factor where routine back room operations are involved, however, local workers will need to be trained in their native language.
Two approaches to standardization can be considered; that of perceiving a domestic product as a world product. Another feature is that substantial economies of scale in production and marketing can be achieved by developing standardized marketing programs.
Despite the success of international standards-setting bodies in developing globally applicable standards and regulations, governments continue to promote or set unique national and sub-national requirements. A standardised brand name or trademark Levitt - "the world is becoming a common market place in which people - no matter where they live - desire the same product and lifestyles" — homogeneous needs and preferences Advantages of a Standardised approach One of the main advantages derived from adopting a standardised communications approach is the opportunity to enjoy significant reductions in production costs.
Emergence of newly industrialized countries with productive capability and low labor cost leads to low cost of the final products. He further cites poor execution as the reason for failure of companies which have tried to go global and failed. Globalisation has different implications for different types of services and is affected by the nature of the process involved in creating and delivering a given service.
For the multi-service single-site strategy to be successful internationally, customers must be willing to travel a long distance and stay for an extended time or telecommunications must be substituted for physical travel. Constraints Saunders tells us that tobacco advertising is banned in France, Belgium and Germany.
The unique features of the location for example tourist attraction or reputation of service personnel will dictate the selection of this strategy. Some of the major benefits of standardization aspect have been brought out which include cost saving, consistency with customers, improved planning with distribution and greater control of national boarders.
There is equally growing global and regional channels. His views are that globalization marketing has taken root in various economies and has been enhanced by technological advancements.
Labour intensive activities can be supported by major investments in communications and computer systems that facilitate the transfer of information into and out of the process. They equally highlight different ways in which standardization has been conceptualized which include meaning that the same marketing strategy is applied in all markets or domestic marketing strategy is applied to foreign market.
In Korea all actors have to be Korean Lithuania- pet food ads banned before 11 P. Another significant advantage of adopting a standardised approach is that it serves to minimise confusion among buyers who travel. As part of this response the government and industry should develop an integrated approach that points the way to continuing prosperity.
Another significant advantage of adopting a standardised approach is that it serves to minimise confusion among buyers who travel. For example in France some adverts contain a lot of nudity, whilst in Arab countries not much flesh is visible. On the other hand there is implicit assumption that standardization concepts are un-dimensional in the overall marketing program.
Get Full Essay Get access to this section to get all help you need with your essay and educational issues. In the quest for standardization and globalization the blurring of traditional lines between trade policies and domestic economic policies underlines the need for consensus and better coordination.
Market liberalization and privatization are equally forces to be reckoned. The best approach would appear to be to hire and train locals to handle that part of the process in consultation with those who know successful approaches, which have worked in other countries.
Modification Despite the obvious advantages of a standardised communications strategy there exists a number of significant factors that impinge upon the effectiveness of such a strategy. Paper of International Marketing Review, Vol.
It is important to note that this essay has presented discussion of standardisation vs. adaptation argument mainly with disregard to industry-specific factors, and in real-life business environment the extent of standardisation or adaptation is different for each industry.
Standardisation VS Mass Customisation Introduction Hospitality and tourism industry represent 5% of global Gross Domestic Product, it is also responsible for over million jobs globally or one in every 12 jobs worldwide (UNWTO, ).
Furthermore, it is the fourth largest export sector in the world (UNWTO, ). Standardisation vs. Adaptation - International Marketing in Service Firms - Christian Wolf Sofie Hildingsson Patrick van der Honing - Term Paper - Business economics - Marketing, Corporate Communication, CRM, Market Research, Social Media - Publish your bachelor's or master's thesis, dissertation, term paper or essay.
Standardisation versus Adaptation in a Globalisation context Challenge This is the challenge facing primarily multinational firms whether to standardise their local offering or adapt/localise it for the market they are selling into.
- STANDARDISATION VS ADAPTATION The standardisation versus adaptation debate is an old one in international marketing, as the discussion timidly started more than eight decades ago, in the 's, was generalized in the 's and continues until today (Vrontis, Thrassou & Lamprianou, ).
Standardization vs. adaptation of the marketing mix in foreign markets has been one of the key research areas in international marketing since late s.
Several authors have presented many arguments favoring standardization but on the other hand several authors have also supported the advantages of adaptation of the marketing mix.Standardisation vs adaptation essay writer